What are the collectors commonly used in beneficiation reagents

What are the collectors commonly used in beneficiation reagents:

In nature,except for coal,graphite,sulfur,talc and molybdenite and other mineral particles that have hydrophobic surface and natural floatability,most minerals are hydrophilic,and so are gold minerals.Adding a chemical can change the hydrophilicity of mineral particles and produce hydrophobicity to make them floatable.This chemical is usually called a collector.Collectors are usually polar collectors and non-polar collectors.

Polar collectors are composed of two parts:polar groups that can interact with the surface of mineral particles and non-polar groups that play a hydrophobic role.When this kind of collector is adsorbed on the surface of mineral particles,its molecules or ions are arranged in a directional arrangement,with polar groups facing the surface of the mineral particles,and non-polar groups facing outward to form a hydrophobic film,thereby making the mine site floatable.

For gold associated with sulfide minerals such as copper,lead,zinc,and iron,organic thio compounds are often used as purge agents in flotation.For example,alkyl(ethyl,propyl,butyl,pentyl,etc.)sodium dithiocarbonate(Potassium),also known as xanthate,commonly known as xanthate.For example,NaS2C·OCH2·CH3,in the flotation of gold-containing polymetallic ores,ethyl xanthate and butyl xanthate are mostly used.Alkyl dithiophosphoric acid or its salts,such as(RO)2PSSH,where R is an alkyl group,commonly known as black medicine.